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Notes on Building Projects
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Note. The information on this page concerning buildings comes mainly from a speedy 'first pass' through the RCMPC records at UMA and from dipping into the Monash Papers at NLA looking for information on other themes. It is presented to indicate the nature and scope of John Monash's work in building construction. Details should be used with caution. For an overview of early development of reinforced concrete in Australia, see e.g. Lewis, M. 1988.

Government House Melbourne,
fireproofing of basement (quote)

This project is mentioned for its curiosity value. In February 1910, Thomas Hill, the local Works Director of the federal Department of Home Affairs wrote to Monash: "It is desired to obtain a quotation for Fire Proofing the Ceiling of a Basement at Government House, Melbourne. Kindly let one of your Officers call and see me re same. Wednesday afternoon if possible." The basement concerned was under the Ball Room of the Governor's residence. The task must have been allocated to P T Fairway who prepared calculations and a drawing. The City Surveyor, A C Mountain, proposed the use of clinker from the City's refuse destructor as aggregate for the reinforced concrete and Monash promised to buy a sample and test it for "both cost and efficiency" in cases where working stresses were not expected to be high.

Monash quoted a high price for the job: nearly £600. Perhaps he did not want it. The quotation was accompanied by a long letter to Hill explaining that it would be a difficult task to insert a reinforced concrete floor into the existing stone and brick masonry structure. He proposed to duplicate the existing brick columns with thin r.c. columns adjacent to them and to the perimeter walls of the cellar. A reinforced concrete floor would then be formed from precast plates situated below the existing ball room floor [timber?] so as to insulate it from fire. This would have the advantage of retaining the elasticity of the existing floor. The high cost was due to these difficulties and the fact that the specification required the concrete cover to the reinforcement to be 2 inches. (JM would have considered this excessive.) RCMPC would minimise disruption to the work of officials; but the wine stored in the cellar would have to be shifted around as required by the work.

Ackman's Warehouse, Additional storey

Miles Lewis advises that this building was at 249-251 Smith St, Fitzroy, "one of three buildings whose facades survive on the front of the Safeway Supermarket. It was built as a coffee palace in about 1881, extended about 1887, and internally rebuilt for Ackman, the furniture retailer and manufacturer, in about 1910. The internal structure was originally timber, but at the time of demolition in about 1985-6 it was entirely reinforced concrete." (Dates are approximate, being based on sources such as Directories. See also Lewis 1985.)

There is no project file for Ackman's Warehouse in UMA. The few facts assembled below come from four letters in "Letter Book J" and a single drawing in the J Thomas Collection.

In February 1910, P T Fairway contacted the builder J J Oliver to ask whether he would be interesting in joining with RCMPC to add an extra storey to Ackman's Warehouse. The two firms were already working together on Stuart's Warehouse. On 15th he told Oliver that a Mr S Smith was willing for RCMPC and Oliver to do the work. "If you are prepared to go into the matter on the lines and at the figures suggested by me on Saturday last, I would be glad to meet you."

Our research notes give no hint of Smith's affiliations.

In June, Fairway quoted £546 (excluding commission to Oliver) for the reinforced concrete work. The quote was given under the following conditions:

  1. That we be allowed, while keeping to the same thicknesses, areas &c, shown on the Architect's drawings, to compute and design the reinforcements of the work on our own lines, we giving full guarantee for the work in every way.
  2. That you will provide all hoisting materials and plant as at Stuart's Warehouse, and get everything ready (chases etc) for reinforced concrete work
  3. Work to be left as stripped.

Plan showing grid of beams. Refer to text.The drawing in JTC was initialled by Laing on 18 July and signed by Fairway. (Monash was overseas.) The plan shows a basically rectangular building. The frontage is not dimensioned, but scales at about 58 feet. The width steps in to "about" 49 feet part way along its length which is "about" 70 feet. Only three reinforced concrete walls were required, the straight side being against an adjacent building. A 4.5 inch chase was to be cut into the masonry along this side to support one edge of the reinforced concrete roof plate. Internally, the roof plate was supported by steel beams carried on steel columns. The reinforced concrete walls incorporated engaged columns to provide a bearing for the ends of the roof beams. A parapet extended 4 feet above the roof at the back and along the free side. At the front it was 7'-6" high and bore the proprietor's name.

The upper part of the building with the name "Ackman's" spelled out in large letters, above a row of small windows with arched tops.

In August, Fairway mentioned to Alex Lynch that the job was going smoothly. RCMPC's foreman was Frederick Bloom.

Lake Boga Butter Factory (floor)

This was a small job, probably for a slab-on-ground. Correspondence with the owners, Holdenson & Nielsen Fresh Food Prop. Ltd. starts in March 1910. Fairway informed them that he had checked on the local sand and found it no good for reinforced concrete work. "The metal from Pyramid Hill is generally rotten granite, and also quite unsuitable, and I am very doubtful if the metal, which you mention as being obtainable at Bendigo for 2/6 per load, would be suitable, in view of the fact that we pay 6/- per c.y. for our bluestone screenings in Melbourne." However, suitable sand could be obtained from Bendigo.

Construction occurred in mid April, under the supervision of A E Lynch, Alex Lynch's son, who was to become Managing Director of RCMPC from 1950 to 1957. A letter from Fairway to AEL, informing him that "Plasterer Coghlan" would soon leave Melbourne for the site, is addressed to AEL at the Commercial Dining Rooms, Lake Boga. The account was rendered on 13 May.

Melbourne Grammar School Staircase

This job included a staircase consisting of three flights from Ground to First Floor level and a portion of first floor slab, all supported on masonry walls. RCMPC quoted architects Godfrey & Spowers £83 on 11 March 1910. All concreting was finished by 28 April, then there was a delay of some six weeks while the balustrades were fitted. After the granolithic finish had been applied the final account was submitted on 30 June.

Jackman's Cafe, Adelaide

Facade as it would have looked with verandahs removed. Central entrance flanked by traditional shopfronts with recessed doorways under broad arches. The facade is enlivened with panels of tiling, rustication, and small decorative columns.This building is described as a fish restaurant for Messrs J Jackman & Sons in King William Street, Adelaide. However, constant references in the newspapers to annual meetings and reunions held there suggest it was a centre for Adelaide society. A drawing in JTC prepared by the architectural firm Garlick & Jackman is dated April 1910. It shows a narrow building with a frontage of about 38 feet and a depth of 90 feet. There was a basement, ground and first floor, and a roof garden above, requiring reinforced concrete slabs at three levels. The two-storey shop fronts were obscured by a typical Australian-style verandah covering the wide footpath and providing a balcony area above, so the image of the facade (right) is a composite created from two of the architect's sketches.

Although carried out by SARC, the job was controlled from Melbourne. Fairway completed the engineering computations, cost estimates and specification in May. The design provided for three more floors to be added, planned after an interval of two years.

For engineers: Permissible stresses were: steel 7.5 tsi; concrete in compression 650 psi; concrete in "compression cross breaking" 500 psi; concrete in shear 100 psi; concrete in tension nil; shear in steel 5 tsi. Live load on the roof (originally to be a garden) 112 psf. First and Ground floors 85 psf. Columns were designed to carry, after the extra floors had been added, the full load on three floors simultaneously, plus 50% on the other floors.

The job was secured on 2 June at a contract price of £3942. Requisitions for materials were issued on 24th. Late in July, SARC reported that heavy rains were holding up work on all their contracts. In September, they reported a dearth of carpenters in Adelaide, the newspapers being full of advertisements for them. Construction reports on the reinforced concrete work were sent to Melbourne from 5 October to 6 November.

Late in October, H G Jenkinson prepared estimates for provision of two more floors (3rd and 4th) and sent them to Fairway for approval. (Monash was overseas.) Fairway agreed, noting that the slight increase in unit prices was "fully justified by very probable labour troubles, and the height above ground". In January 1911, Jenkinson told Monash (back home) that it was now planned simply to roof over the area previously intended as the roof garden. Then Bakewell, the Managing Director of SARC, told Gibson and Monash that Jackson & Sons wanted 12 months' credit at 6 per cent to cover the extra cost. He explained the Jackmans' financial position and business prospects, and recommended acceptance. Eventually, Gibson and Monash agreed to give credit on the necessary £663.

In March 1911, with three quarters of the third floor concreted, Jenkinson summarised the financial position as far as SARC was concerned:

Total Contract Price £4505
Cost of job to date£2500 
Estimated cost to complete (full)£500£3000
Gross Margin (so far) £1505
Engineer's Commission£113 
Office Expenses£400£553
Clear Margin £952

He continued: "The realized clear margin will certainly not be below this, but most probably about £1100 as the deductions are all on the full side and no account is taken of extras which already amount to over £100." Also there was much partition work still to be done at 11/- per square yard, not included. "The estimated margin on the amount of £4505 was £750, the original contract being taken at a cut price to obtain the work."

On 10 April, SARC reported all concreting complete, and on 3 June 1911 all work done.

The building survived fires which started on the upper floors in 1913 and 1916, and was thus seen as an indication of the fire-resisting properties of reinforced concrete. It is believed to have become Balfour's Grand Cafe in 1917-18, as shown in SLSA image B 53560. Relevant newspaper articles available on NLA Trove include: Register 2 Jun 1910, Mail 7 Jun 1913, and Advertiser 6 Mar 1916.


Geological Museum Retaining Wall

The Geological Museum was a small ornate building. (Several photographs are held by the State Library of Victoria. The need for a retaining wall at the rear is best seen in Image No. H84.276/1/4B.)

The Public Works Department was represented by Acting District Architect H J Kerr and a Mr Morell. P T Fairway completed computations for the wall in May 1910. The RCMPC project file contains a tracing showing a very heavy design in reinforced concrete done by the PWD. Fairway wrote to Kerr: "We have estimated on a somewhat modified design from that shown on your drawings, but have maintained the same depth, height, and outside dimensions and details, and we will guarantee the stability of such modified design in every way". RCMPC's quote for the wall and "extraneous works" was £219. They agreed to adopt the PWD Specification except for amendments required by the change in design. The proposal was accepted by the PWD on 8 June.

In a letter dated 17th, Fairway informed Alex Lynch, RCMPC's Works Manager, that the contract was now signed, but he was trying to delay the start, presumably because of pressure of work on other contracts. However, Colonel Watson, Chief Government Architect, was pushing for an immediate start. PTF had given "Tony" [unidentified] similar instructions. He had arranged that on neither of the jobs would there be a Clerk of Works. The first requisition for materials was issued on 21 June, and the final account (£209 for the wall and £15 for carting soil) was issued on 19 September.

See also a parallel treatment under retaining wall heading.

Customs Laboratory Plates

Mentioned as an addition to the "no job too small" category, this involved the provision of heavy tops for work benches, supported by steel angle iron. They were to be made in haste, apparently as a favour to builder F Atherton who was running late with his contract for the Laboratory. The total area was about 132 square feet. Initial correspondence is around May 1910, but the first requisition for materials was not issued until February 1911, if our research notes are correct.

Seymour Post Office Balcony Floor

RCMPC first contacted builder J A Hunter in May 1910. In July they quoted £86 for a balcony floor, probably over a porch, and 38 lintels. RCMPC's foreman on the job was James Devitt. His reports to the Melbourne office run from 6 to 27 August. There was a glitch early in August when work was stopped for some reason, and RCMPC's men returned briefly to Melbourne.

Richard Smith's Worando Building, Adelaide

This was a SARC job, but the RCMPC files contain many reports on progress, and provide some interesting insights. The building was described as a warehouse, but it also incorporated shops and apartments. It had entrances on Grenfell and Chesser Streets and windows "overlooking" French Street. The project was originally filed under "Harris Scarfe" but from about September 1910 it was known to RCMPC as the "Richard Smith" project. Smith was a partner and Managing Director of Harris Scarfe, but he seems to have been sole proprietor of this building.

In May 1910, H G Jenkinson sent Fairway hurried tracings and a cost estimate for his consideration. The first requisitions for materials were issued in July. By 24 September, HGJ reported that 49 footings and 32 columns had been completed. The warehouse was built at a time of serious shortages of skilled workers. In March 1911 HGJ wrote: "It is likely that we will have to shorten hands on this job owing to the slowness of the brickwork. It is very difficult I understand to obtain bricks, which have to be procured from Melbourne." Reports show that reinforcing bars and rolled steel joists were also supplied from Melbourne, requisitioned through RCMPC's office. In May 1911, SARC was trialling a Smith Concrete Mixer. HGJ reported that labour costs had been lowered and the concrete was of first class quality. On 4 September 1911, he reported that all [reinforced concrete] construction work had been completed.

Relevant newpaper reports (available through NLA Trove) are: Advertiser 14 Feb 1910, Register 23 July 1910, 27 May 1911, 3 Jun 1911, Mail 4 May 1912, and Register 28 Mar 1919.

Several spurned invitations

Our research notes for mid-1910 indicate a high number of refusals of work on the grounds that reinforced concrete was not suitable for the job proposed. This may be an accident of our note-taking, or of RCMPC's record-keeping, but it could have had something to do with Monash's absence overseas. Fairway, trying to perform JM's duties as well as his own, may have been unable to maintain the normal level of output. Serious work on the Collins House project was about to get under way and J A Laing, a lynchpin of the organisation, had accepted a position in Queensland. (At the end of July he was persuaded to stay with an increased salary.) In any case, the enquiries indicate a growing interest and confidence in reinforced concrete on the part of the general public.

About June 1910, M C Forbes wrote asking what it would cost to build a dining room in r.c. for the homestead of "Burrumbeep" near Ararat, Victoria. Fairway replied: "Reinforced Concrete only becomes economical where some engineering or constructional difficulties have to be overcome, such as in Bridge work, or in the erection of Factories whose floors have to carry considerable weights." Hence, in this case it could not compete with "brickwork, wooden framing, or even concrete block construction".

Also in June, a Mr G H Lynch enquired about the use of r.c. for a two-storey factory in Collingwood (Melbourne). It is more surprising that in this case he was told the building was "too simple" for reinforced concrete to be of advantage.

In July, an architect named Dossetor asked RCMPC to give a price to builders Lidston & Falkingham for r.c. work at "Balaclava Villa". This included walls extending 11 feet above floor level, the outer walls being 9 inches thick and the partitions 4.5 inches. A sketch plan shows a house about 30 × 30 feet. In this case Fairway went so far as to prepare an estimate, but added: "As pointed out to you verbally, the construction of small buildings is not a legitimate use of Reinforced Concrete, which is mostly used in buildings where engineering difficulties have to be overcome. For this reason you will probably find our quotation in excess of your estimate for the construction of the building in brickwork."

Also in July, Fairway quoted Carlo Catani, Chief of the Public Works Department of Victoria, £815 for a Pavilion in Albert Park, Melbourne. He expressed regret that the price was so high.

In August, architect C A Walton approached RCMPC about a two-storey warehouse in Carlton for a Mr Friedman. Fairway replied that it would be best to build the walls in brick, rather than reinforced concrete, so he was quoting only for the slabs for the first and second floors (each 24 squares) and the roof (14 squares) at £1008.

In September, T Kelly, the engineer at Tungamah, enquired about two buildings for which he "had orders": a church and a 6-8 roomed house. It is surprising that he approached RCMPC, because in 1909 they had built service reservoirs for Tungamah Shire under his direction and relations had not always been smooth [link]. Fairway sent the now standard reply explaining the inability of reinforced concrete to compete with brick when the applied loading was low.


Collins House

Reporting a visit of architecture students to Collins House, the RVIA Journal [9, 180-1] described the building as "divided into three portions, of which the front block is of stone and brick construction, the middle block entirely of reinforced concrete, and rear entirely of brick. All brickwork is in cement [mortar], and all floors are of ferro-concrete."

Plan showing the three separate blocks forming the complex. These were connected by narrow passageways at all levels. The front block is a rectangle. Its broad side faces the street and is composed of load-bearing masonry. The other outer walls of this block are brick masonry. Its six internal columns and its floor beams are steel. The central block, behind the first, is a rectangle extending lengthways. Its columns, beams and walls are of reinforced concrete. The rear block is a complex assembly of rectangles. Its outer walls are load-bearing masonry; its beams are steel. It has no internal columns.

Key to materials above:

The architecture was quite grand. "The base of the structure is of trachyte, a very hard stone from Bowral, NSW, the rest of the front being in Wangaratta stone, sometimes called granite, but possessing very little mica in its composition. The corridor is paved with white Sicilian marble, and the portico has a lining of the same stone, while the red marble is from Orange, NSW." The fittings of the Queensland National Bank were of Victorian and Tasmanian blackwood "and very fine".

The project first appears in our research notes in May 1910 as the "Baillieu Patterson Building". The first architects appointed were Butler & Bradshaw. Monash was overseas and Fairway was Acting Superintendent of RCMPC. Although Arthur Baillieu was pressing the architects for action, Fairway stalled for time in order to discuss matters with Gibson. Early in June, Gibson wrote to Monash that "Baillieu Patterson and Co.'s job is going past us. Butler the architect is dead against us, although strangely enough Baillieu Patterson & Co. are favourable. We have fought to the last ditch." With little hope of success, he suggested a policy of refusing to perform reinforced concrete work under Butler's direction. On 30 June, Fairway reported that Baillieu Patterson had dispensed with Butler and appointed Klingender & Alsop. Three weeks later, came news that Butler & Bradshaw were to remain nominally in charge of the project, but Butler was to have nothing to do with it.

On the day that decision was made, Fairway met Bradshaw to discuss design loads for the floors. Within a week he sent quotes to both Butler & Bradshaw and Baillieu Patterson & Sons. He wrote to Monash that architect John Grainger was now involved in the project and was insisting that he would have reinforced concrete in the building only if it were done by a "reputable" firm - and that he wanted RCMPC.

On 5 August, a second quote was submitted listing:
(a) r.c. work - floors for Ground, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and roof of front block
(b) casing of all R.S. joists and stanchions
(c) rear block, similar except excludes slab on ground
(d) rear wall
(e) light area
(f) central block, r.c. construction instead of steel: 7 floors and roof, external walls, stairs.
Grand Total: £8830.

This was accepted the following day, and it was arranged for Fairway and Gibson to sign the contract with Bradshaw on 8th. The RVIA's Conditions of Contract were to be applied and PTF said he would study them thoroughly before the day. Bradshaw had set the penalty for late completion at £20 per day, "so we must go prepared to contest that point".

Four drawings in JTC show Butler & Bradshaw's initial scheme, with steelwork in all three blocks. One drawing carries a note: "Recd from Mr Bradshaw after signing contract 8.8.10". They show the column and girder layouts from the Ground to the Sixth floor, and for the Roof "or 7th Floor".

The first requisition for materials was issued on 10 August. Fairway set to work on detailed computations for the reinforced concrete, and the first drawing for the central block was issued on 18th. The external walls of the central block were defined by a series of rectangular columns, infilled by vertical concrete plates 6 inches thick (see diagram above). The drawings preserved in JTC do not show the openings for windows. They provide little information on the passages connecting the three blocks, but they had reinforced concrete floors, and windows over their full length.

A drawing dated 20 August shows that four reinforced concrete joists were added to the floors of the rear block to reduce the spans of three large slabs defined by the steel system. (These can be seen in the plan above.) The detail immediately below shows the normal scheme for the floors of the front and rear blocks, with a rolled steel joist encased in concrete integral with the floor plate.

Refer to text above.

The details below show (left) how the additional concrete joists were fitted into the steel system. At right can be seen a cross-section of the concrete joist, showing the type of stirrup used by RCMPC.

Cross-section through a main girder and adjoining floor slab, including reinforcement of a secondary beam, or joist running at right angles to the main girder. The main girder is a steel I-section encased in concrete. Near the end of the secondary (reinforced concrete) joist, some of the main bars bend up to pass over the top of the steel section, within the thickness of the floor. The reinforcing cage is thus supported by the main girder. The stirrups consist of a single piece of wire bent back on itself five times, to provide six vertical lines of reinforcement per stirrup.

By 28th, drawings were ready up to the Roof. On 31st, Bradshaw announced that he wanted to cut out every second column in the central block. PTF informed him of the "position of things" and asked if he should halt work on the project. Confusion reigned until the end of work on 2nd September, when Mr W L Baillieu decided there would be no alteration.

RCMPC gained possession of the site on 1 September. Fairway continued with his calculations, and the design was approved by City Surveyor Morton on 6th.

Fairway's calculations show that there was still no consideration of bending moments in columns. Girders and ribs were designed for WL/9 at centre of span and plates for WL/8.

Early in September, RCMPC complained to Butler & Bradshaw that they were being delayed by slow steelwork erection. On 30th, RCMPC submitted a quote for (1) "extensions to Rear Block", being a 2-storey reinforced concrete building and a shaft for a goods lift 8 storeys high for £652. (2) escape stairs in reinforced concrete for £416. At the end of October, Fairway told Works Manager Lynch that there was a "hollow" in the ground floor due to "want of precaution in fixing struts" supporting the formwork. He continued: "it looks very bad indeed, and I understand Mr. Scott has been making considerable capital out of it". [It proved that the "hollow" was only ¼ inch deep, but it probably caused unsightly ponding of water. PTF promised B&B that it would be fixed.] In mid-October the carrying capacity of the central block floors was boosted by adding extra girders and increasing the thickness of others. Throughout this period all correspondence was with Butler & Bradshaw.

Late in November, alterations were made to the design of the Sixth Floor and Roof. Computations were prepared for the goods lift and escape stair. RCMPC's construction work on the central block reached the top storey after 6 December 1910, and was declared complete on 26 January 1911.

Work on smaller items continued for much of 1911, correspondence now being directed to architects Grainger & Little. These included partitions, strong rooms, a caretaker's room, handrailing for the escape stairs, stairs in the basement, and a machine room for the lift. The Victorian Architectural Students Society visited Collins House on 11 November 1911.

RCMPC's "final" statement was delivered on 20 November, but a revised final statement was delivered on 24 February 1912 for £11,239.

Unfortunately, there are no photographs of the original Collins House in the RCMPC Collection at University of Melbourne Archives, but glimpses of one side may be seen in photographs of the later extensions.
The Australian War Memorial possesses a view of the completed facade with ID Number HO2368.
The Grainger Museum at the University of Melbourne possesses a painting by Ambrose Patterson showing the street facade during construction.

City Abattoirs Extension

This was a simple addition to the Hanging Room and Slaughterhouse in Kensington (Melbourne) built by RCMPC in 1907 [link]. The extension was about 120 feet in length, comprising three bays. The cross-section of the extension is identical to that of the 1907 building. The City's drawings are dated 6 July 1910, and signed by E H Morton as City Architect. RCMPC had estimates ready by the end of the month. Fairway sent a quote for £3066 for the r.c. work to builder J J Oliver on 1 August. On 6th, he asked Lynch to give thought to the appointment of a foreman for the job. On 9th, he issued the first requisition for materials and on 10th, Lynch and the new foreman visited the site to arrange for the start of work. But also on 10th, Fairway issued a quote for the same amount to builders Peters & Hetherington and subquent dealings seem to have been with them, not Oliver.

(More research is needed to sort out what happened.)

RCMPC seem to have had good relations with a number of builders, but Peters & Hetherington were not amongst them and the correspondence includes claims of delays caused to each other's work. RCMPC were obliged at one stage to explain that they were unable to pull men off their Maribyrnong Bridge project in order to speed up work at the Abattoirs. Requisitions for materials were still being issued in November 1910, and the final account was posted on 28 March 1911.

Retaining Wall for "Balholmen"

RCMPC tendered to build several retaining walls at the home of Arthur S Baillieu in Struan St, Toorak, but only one, along the northern boundary, was built. It seems most of the activity took place in August 1910.

Simpsons Floors (Adelaide)

This was an SARC job comprising two floors and a roof for Simpson & Sons' premises in Gawler Place. The architect was Alfred Wells. In correspondence with Fairway in September 1910, Jenkinson agreed that the price was a little low. At the end of November he explained to Monash: "It is a small job taken cheaply to get in with the new Architect, and we have had to carry it out under a young and comparatively inexperienced foreman, with the added disadvantage of a body of carpenters, scraped together with difficulty, consisting for the most part of very poor tradesmen". He reported on 3 December that all concrete work was complete except for some minor items.

Newman's Building (Floor)

This was a small job for Messrs Newman & Sons. Their premises were at 84 and 86 Elizabeth St, Melbourne, described as "next door to Alston's Tobacco Shop". The building was three storeys high, but only 18'-6" wide. Only the first floor was of reinforced concrete, supported on masonry perimeter walls. The architects were Bates, Peebles & Smart, and the builders, Geo Farnsworth & Son. Calculations and drawings were produced in November and December 1910, and the first requisition for materials was issued on 9 December. The price was £87.

Our notes do not contain the date of completion.

Gibson Wash House Floor

An antiquarian curiosity is a wash house floor installed for Mr R Gibson of "Roseberry", Toorak: presumably John Gibson's brother, later Sir Robert Gibson, Chairman of the Commonwealth [of Australia] Bank. Lynch reported work complete on 23 November 1910. Gibson was charged cost price of £14.

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